Saturday, March 14, 2020

Environmental Science Final Essay Example

Environmental Science Final Essay Example Environmental Science Final Paper Environmental Science Final Paper In general, natural resources ________. should be used efficiently and conserved Microbes in our digestive tract that help us digest food demonstrate a(n) ________ association. symbiotic Coal, oil, and natural gas are ________. symbiotic Which of the following is true about top predators They are likely to be keystone species. A climax community always remains in place until a disturbance restarts succession Which of the following is true? Species on Earth today are but a fraction of all species that ever lived. Sustainable development ________. means consuming resources without compromising future availability ________ believe that within a market economy, economic sustainability is achieved through reduction of growth and by more efficient resource use. Environmental economists A small section of prairie grasses, over a year, produces enough biomass to feed insects, mice, rabbits, birds, deer, antelope, and a host of decomposers. The amount of food potentially available to the herbivores is the ________. net primary production A hypothesis is ________. a testable proposition that explains an observed phenomenon or answers a question The origin of all nitrogen in biological tissues is ________. atmospheric N2 gas A system receiving inputs and producing outputs without undergoing any changes in size or function is said to be in ________. dynamic equilibrium The San Andreas Fault in California is an example of a(n) ________. transform plate boundary Ecology is ________. the study of organisms and their interactions with each other and with the environment Zebra mussels ________. are an invasive exotic species that clogs water intake pipes at factories, power plants, and wastewater treatment facilities ________ are the primary water?insoluble components of cell membranes. Lipids Taiga and tundra both ________. have comparatively low temperatures throughout the year Macronutrients ________. are required in large amounts for organisms to survive River water held behind a dam is best described as a form of ________. potential energy Type of rock formed when magma or lava cools ________. igneous The functional role of a species in its community is its ________. distribution Skin, hair, muscles, and enzymes are classified as ________. proteins Which of the following describes mass wasting? downslope movement of soil and rock due to gravity If domestic fuel prices rise to $5 per gallon, conservation will increase, alternative fuels will be developed, and energy efficiency and our quality of life will improve. This philosophy is consistent with ________ economics. environmental The scientific process and knowledge is based on ________. testing hypotheses that are built on observations ________ are typical primary consumers in a temperature deciduous forest. Deer Ecosystem services include ________. pollination of crop plants ________ is best defined as the study of how we decide to use scarce resources in the face of demand. economics A coyote, which can alter its food intake to match seasonal abundance of plants, fruits, or small animals, is considered to be ________. a generalist, able to be flexible Detritivores include ________. millipedes, soil insects, many ants Unregulated populations tend to increase by ________. exponential growth Rock that has undergone heat or pressure that causes it to change form is called ________. metamorphic An example of greenwashing is ________. creating the illusion of green or sustainable practices Endemic species ________. are found only in one place on the planet Grazing animals such as deer are ________. primary consumers or herbivores Ecotones are the ________. transitional zones between ecosystems A paradigm ________. is a means of evaluating scientific hypotheses The fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income, with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies are the premises of ________. environmental justice Which of the following would be most vulnerable to extinction? an orchid endemic to a forest where logging is occurring A population is a (the) ________. group of individuals of a single species that live and interact in one area Which of the following is accurate? when we damage ecosystems we lose both biodiversity and valuable ecosystem services Geothermal energy, wind and solar radiation are all examples of ________. renewable environmental factors Extinction is ________. a natural process ________ is best defined as the knowledge, beliefs, values, and learned ways of life shared by a group of people. culture Aquifers are ________. underground water reservoirs The eutrophication that has taken place in the Gulf of Mexico and other locations appears to be due to ________. excess nutrients from fertilizers Age pyramids, used to show the age structure of a population, generally ________. indicate the relative numbers (frequency, or percentage) of individuals in each age class The force driving plate tectonics is ________. heat in the deepest layers of the earth An example of a density-independent factor would be ________. cold weather causing the lake to freeze The biosphere consists of the ________. sum of all the planets living organisms and the abiotic portions of the environment Paleontologists and ecologists agree that ________. 99% of all species that have ever existed are now extinct The human population is approximately ________. 6.9 billion Worldwide, the fastest growing cities today are mostly ________. cities in developing nations, including Cairo, Egypt, and Mumbai (Bombay), India Deforestation ________. has the greatest impacts in tropical areas and arid regions Forests reach their greatest ecological complexity when ________. they are mature and exhibit a multi-level canopy Organic farming ________. has increased in the United States, Canada and Europe in recent years Any consideration of the true costs of sprawl must include ________. increased use of fossil fuels Not surprisingly, the nation with the highest rate of contraceptive use (90%) is ________. Australia The first national park was ________. Yellowstone The buildup of salts in soils as a result of overirrigation is ________. salinization The loss of more than 10% productivity in arid areas due to erosion, soil compaction, forest removal, and an array of other factors is called ________. desertification Bullfrog tadpoles are often sold as fish bait, even in areas where they do not occur naturally. When people buy 10 of them and dont use them all, they often dump the remainder into the lake or river. This is an example of ________. introduced species Monoculture ________. is an agricultural practice of growing large stands of a single species According to the IPAT model, technology that enhances our acquisition of minerals, fossil fuels, timber, and ocean fish ________. increases environmental impact During most of our species 160,000-year existence, and until about 10,000 years ago, we depended on ________. hunting and gathering The breakdown of large rocks into smaller pieces is ________. affected by rainfall, freezing and thawing ________ is the worlds most populous nation, home to ________ of the people living on Earth. China; one-fifth A population which is not growing will have a TFR of ________. 2.1 In general, successfully introduced species experience ________. increased competition from other organisms The practice of planting large areas with a single type of crop, monoculture ________. is a development of industrial agriculture Ecosystem-based timber harvesting uses methods that ________. leave seed-producing or mature trees uncut to provide for future forests Relative to agriculture, insects are usually ________. essential pollinators and predators for sustainable systems Agricultural practices, where the members of a farming family produce only enough food for themselves and do not make use of large-scale irrigation, chemical fertilizer, or machinery and technology, is called ________. subsistence agriculture Researchers have demonstrated that organic farming ________. decreased organic soil losses while giving yields comparable to conventional farming Americas age?structure diagram ________. reflects a population with a high growth rate ________ are best defined as substances that cause birth defects. Teratogens What drives the move to the suburbs from cities? desire to live in less stressful, more peaceful park-like conditions Clear-cutting ________. removes all trees from an area Leaching ________. removes water soluble nutrients from soil ________ are best defined as substances that cause cancer. Carcinogens The new urbanism tries to ________. develop walkable communities, with homes and businesses close together A country with ________ is not expected to grow quickly in the near future. high female literacy It is more energetically efficient for us to to eat more ________. plant-based foods Over the past 50 years, most U.S. citizens who could afford to do so ________. left the cities for the suburbs Toxicants that cause harm by affecting the immune system include ________. allergens The ecological footprint of a large city is ________ than/as the surrounding rural area. slightly higher Why do developing nations impose few or no restrictions on logging? They are desperate for economic development. Raising ________ requires the most land and water. beef cattle The O horizon is ________. primarily composed of organic materials A species of lizard has gone extinct. This could be due to any of the following reasons except ________. increased genetic diversity within the species Controlled burns would be used in forests ________. that are subject to severe wild fires to remove fuel load and stimulate new growth The greatest diversity (numbers of different species) of organisms can be found in ________. insects The effect of toxicants on fetuses and young children ________. is greater because of their developmental immaturity, rapid growth and smaller biomass Biodiversity enhances human food security because it ________. is a potential source of new food items or new genetic varieties of existing foods The worlds urban populations are ________. growing faster than the population as a whole Which of the following is a method that governments use to improve urban transportation? Designate carpool lanes and carpool parking spots in many public places. The worldwide drop in sperm counts among men has been attributed to ________. endocrine disruptors The consequences of overfertilization can include ________. eutrophication in nearby waters Some indoor chemical hazard(s) are ________. Radon and asbestos Carcinogens may be difficult to identify because ________. there is a long lag time between exposure to the agent and disease The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change ________. is an international panel that reports on how climate change influences biomes and economies Xeriscaping can save water by ________. planting native or drought-resistant plants with little or no water requirements El Nino and La Nina ________. produce changes of opposite direction in global temperature and precipitation patterns In the wake of the U.S. failure to ratify the Kyoto Protocol ________. cities and states are setting their own programs for reducing greenhouse gas emissions Seasons are a result of ________. differences in the amount and intensity of sunlight brought about by the tilt of Earths axis About 80% of the oceans water exists in the ________. deep zone Milankovitch cycles ________. are changes in Earths rotation and orbit around the sun that may trigger climate variation The most obvious cause of industrial smog is ________. burning fossil fuels The area that underlies the shallow water bordering continents is called the ________. continental shelf An artesian aquifer occurs when ________. a water?bearing layer is trapped between two layers that are less permeable Tropospheric ozone ________. is produced through the interaction of heat and UV light, with nitrogen oxides and carbon-containing compounds Approximately ________% of the typical American city is devoted to use by cars. usually be used from sinks for irrigation and watering lawns As of 2010, the saga of the Colorado Rivers water resource allocation is being complicated by ________. several years of drought coupled with the rapid growth of Las Vegas Overpumping groundwater in coastal areas can cause ________ to move into aquifers, making the water undrinkable. salt water The Coriolis effect contributes to ________. global wind patterns The Kyoto Protocol ________. was intended to reduce emissions of six greenhouse gases to levels lower than those of 1990 Lead enters the atmosphere as a particulate pollutant. This is a problem because it ________. causes central nervous system damage in humans Photochemical smog differs from industrial smog in that it ________. is formed only in the presence of sunlight As water warms, it ________. expands Precipitation that falls on Earths surface ________. may take a variety of pathways through surface water or groundwater flow A recent study has revealed that chlorinated hydrocarbons, gasoline and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have become significant pollutants in ________ from ________. ground water / leaking storage tanks One of the problems that occurs as a consequence of CFC pollution is ________. increasing skin cancer in humans Marine reserves ________. are no?take areas in the oceans Which of the following best describes floodplains? a region of land that is periodically flooded when a river overflows Today, _______ has the worst acid deposition problem, primarily because of _______. China / coal-fired electrical and industrial plants _______% of U.S.citizens live in coastal counties, thus vulnerable to rises in sea level. 53% Carbon dioxide is ________. the main anthropogenic greenhouse gas produced in the United States One-fifth of Earths total freshwater supply is in ________. groundwater Radon ________. may cause lung cancer when inhaled The rapid melting of Greenlands ice cap could disrupt the NADW formation by ________. adding huge amounts of less dense fresh water to the surface of the system Ocean water is saltiest ________. where there is high evaporation and low precipitation The largest portion of atmospheric gases is ________. nitrogen You want to maintain a healthy pond at your school site. Last year another pond became eutrophic; to avoid that, you want to ________. avoid increasing phosphorus runoff into the limnetic zone Kelp are ________. large algae that protect shorelines from erosion, and supply shelter and food for invertebrates and fish Which one of the following is not yet regulated by the EPA? carbon dioxide Most present?day fisheries managers ________. wish to set aside areas of ocean where systems can function without human interference. Keelings reports from Mauna Loa demonstrated ________. an increase in tropospheric CO2 from the 1950s to present The exceptionally strong warming of the eastern Pacific is referred to as ________. El Nino The relative humidity is the ________. amount of water vapor in the atmosphere Natural sources of air pollution come from ________. soil dust and volcanic dust You have been hired by a rapidly growing small city to improve the air quality, which has deteriorated in the past 10 years. Your first suggestion is to ________. improve transportation options, including carpool lanes, buses, and light rail Hydroelectric power generation ________. is an alternative to fossil fuels that produces fewer greenhouse gases We build dams to ________. generate electricity, prevent flooding and provide irrigation Currently, the greatest ecological crisis facing marine food webs is ________. overharvesting Of the following greenhouse gases, ________ concentrations have increased the most since 1750. methane Sinkholes result from ________. overconsumption of water from aquifers weakening the substrate Carbon monoxide ________. blocks oxygen transport in human blood Bathymetry is best defined as the study of ________. ocean depths The greenhouse effect involves warming of Earths surface and the ________. troposphere

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Asian American Observer Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Asian American Observer - Essay Example After reading the Asian America Observer (2012), a reader will get the impression that gender inequality is a pressing issue in Asian American culture. The newspaper features many articles about women and gender issues and this shows that they are most prevalent in the Asian American community. Apparently, women have it tough in acquiring descent job opportunities because of gender privileges. These privileges offer men more opportunities than it tends to for women. Asian American Observer has provided a good understanding of the social issues in Asian American culture as well as the current events that affect Asian Americans. The observer has included several publications that show the community has more social issues relating to gender and women than any other culture. This is seen as a good effort in creating awareness about this community as individuals will understand the culture better therefore make great contributions in bringing about change (Asian America Observer, 2012). A sense of racial solidarity has been noted in the Asian culture since they have a family orientation in the Asian American community. This matter however does not hide the fact that social issues regarding gender and women are prevalent in Asian American culture. ... Men are also more likely to get well paying jobs in high civil positions. There is a stereotype in the Asian American culture where men are believed to be more productive than women. Men will therefore receive more challenging responsibilities compared to women in the work environment. The observer has shown how gender privileges put women at a huge disadvantage as they are left to compete for the degrading and poor paying jobs (Asian America Observer, 2012). They tend to suffer as they are forced to labour under poor conditions. It has also been noticed that men are more likely to benefit from programmes developed for employees in the work environment compared to women. This shows there is limited access of women to training as well as preparation for other opportunities in the place of work. The event had an aim of raising Asian American cultural sensitivity to ensure women are not sidelined at work and should benefit from opportunities that arise in the work place as much as men d o. It is believed that gender equality will offer opportunities to both men and women therefore make better contribution towards team effort. The current event aimed at moving towards the development of Asian America as a community. It stated clear goals and objectives that would contribute in empowering members of the community, especially women. It had been noted that Asian Americans from Philippines, China, Korea and Japan used to work in farm plantations as most of them lacked formal education. The event had an aim of bringing together all Asian Americans so that they can educate individuals who are in the community as well as outside to make Asian Americans realize the real meaning of their culture. This would help

Monday, February 10, 2020

Biomedical scences Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3250 words

Biomedical scences - Essay Example D is inherited as the Mendelian dominant trait while d is inherited as the recessive trait. The RBCs which bear the D and Dd isotypes are referred to as Rh+ individuals and persons having the d isotype are referred to as Rh- individuals. Almost all of the Rh+ people have the D isotype and similarly the Rh- individuals have the d isotype. When the Rh+ blood is transfused to an Rh- person then anti-Rh factor will develop in the patient’s blood within 12 days. If there is a second transfusion of the same blood (Rh+ blood) to that person then cross reaction with Rh factor and anti-Rh factor will cause agglutination reactions leading to hemolytic diseases of adults and newborn. If the mother is rhesus negative and the fetus is rhesus positive (the RBC contains Rhesus antigen inherited from a rhesus positive father), then antibodies will be formed against the rhesus antigen (in the fetus) and will cross the placenta and enter the mother’s blood. In the first pregnancy there w ill be no issues but during the second pregnancy these antibodies will cross the placenta and cross react with the Rhesus antigens of the fetus carried during the second pregnancy and cause agglutination reactions. This will cause erythroblastosis fetalis leading to hemolytic anemia and sometimes deposition of unconjugated bilirubin (derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin from the lysis of RBC’s) in the basal ganglia leading to neural deficits (Chatterjee, 2004). 2. All the six Rh agglutinogens namely the C, c, D, d, E and e are involved in the hemolytic reactions and are of the delayed type. Although routine blood group tests has eliminated the risk of compatibility of RhD isotype but the other isotypes may lead to sensitization in cases of diseases like sickle cell anemia. This disease is prevalent in blacks who express the E antigen and hence produce the anti-E agglutinins which lead to difficulties of donor selection in them for transfusion purposes as in sickle

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Thresholds Theory of Classical Psychophysics Essay Example for Free

Thresholds Theory of Classical Psychophysics Essay Discuss the thresholds theory of classical psychophysics and explain how characteristics of the perceiver are also important in determining the selection of stimuli. The theory that our human cognitive ability has thresholds from the conscious level to a non-conscious level which varies over time in strength. These thresholds are physical and are not defined, but generally are from those activities and thoughts that are the most active having a threshold that defines our active consciousness, down to those thoughts that are several thresholds away and not seemingly linked to our current awareness. The concepts behind the theory attempt to bring together areas of knowledge, including the commonly-held beliefs about short-term memory being limited to around 7 ideas. In an evolutionary sense, humans walk forward and have to plan their next steps. If humans are running, they may be planning, say, 7 steps ahead. This planning allows them to avoid having miss steps. They have to be able to analyze the results of possibly taking steps, and then keep changing their focus after taking a new step forward .In theory people are imperfectly able to keep focus on a small set of priorities. This imperfection may be the solution, though, for allowing new priorities to be considered. An example is if when shopping in a market holding a red scarf you like, someone yells from behind you â€Å"Stop that thief Help† You start to turn around. Your cognitive threshold will swap out your interest in scarves for an interest in this new distraction. You may: †¢Want to see the thief to avoid them †¢Want to see the person yelling to verify they are not joking †¢Want to see if you are near the thief, or possibly in danger In other words, our cognitive and analytical threshold allows us to act in our world and react for what could be labeled as basic evolutionary needs. The cognitive threshold changes over time, for reasons including: †¢mental capacity: fatigue, chemical or emotional impairment/enhancement †¢situational: the ability to think about running is higher when actually running, than when performing some other activity †¢training: learning enhances ability to manage and perform more in those areas being learned, such as language, music, sports, science, and other skills The Cognitive Threshold theory assumes that what is referred to as â€Å"unconscious† or â€Å"subconscious† thinking is essentially thoughts that take place at a different level of awareness. Perception is our sensory experience of the world around us and involves both the recognition of environmental stimuli and action in response to these stimuli. Through the perceptual process, we gain information about properties and elements of the environment that are critical to our survival. A number of factors operate to shape and sometimes distort perception these factors can reside: i) In the perceiver ii) In the Object or target being perceived or iii) In the context of the situation in which the perception is made. 1. Characteristics of the Perceiver: Several characteristics of the perceiver can affect perception. When an individual looks at a target and attempts to interpret what he or she stands for, that interpretation is heavily influenced by personal characteristics of the individual perceiver. The major characteristics of the perceiver influencing perception are: †¢Attitudes †¢Motive †¢Moods †¢Self-concept †¢Interest †¢Cognitive structure †¢Expectation 2) Characteristics of the Target: Characteristics in the target that is being observed can affect what is perceived. Physical appearance pals a big role in our perception of others. Extremely attractive or unattractive individuals are more likely to be noticed in a group than ordinary looking individuals. Motions, sound, size and other attributes of a target shape the way we see it. Verbal Communication from targets also affects our perception of them. Nonverbal communication conveys a great deal of information about the target. The perceiver deciphers eye contact, facial expressions, body movements, and posture all in a attempt to form an impression of the target. 3) Characteristics of the Situation: The situation in which the interaction between the perceiver and the target takes place has an influence on the perceivers impression of the target. The strength of the situational cues also affects social perception. Some situations provide strong cues as to appropriate behavior. In this situation, we assume that individuals behaviors can be accounted for by the situation, and that it may not reflect the individuals disposition Name and discuss briefly three (3) reasons why the memory of a healthy person may fail. Memory is one of the most important functions of the brain. Whether people realize it or not, their memories define who they are. There are many areas of the brain that help you create and retrieve memories. Damage or malfunction of any of these areas can lead to memory loss. Memory loss due to problems with specific brain areas may be different. It may involve only memory of recent or new events, past or remote events, or both. The amnesia may be only for specific events or for all events. The problem may involve learning new information or forming new memories. Mental or thinking abilities may still be present or may have been lost. Filling in the details with imagined events (confabulation), and disorientation to time and place may occur. Memory loss may be for words and thoughts only, or for the body can no longer perform specific actions calls motor action. Memory loss may also be partial, meaning failing to remember only a selected group of items. Self-esteem refers to how an individual feels about him or herself. Does someone view himself as a good person, worthy of good things? If he does, he probably has healthy self esteem. If an individual views himself as flawed and unworthy of praise or the respect of others, he probably has low self-esteem. Self-esteem motivates peoples actions as well as the decisions they make. Individuals with positive self-esteem are likely to believe that they measure up to others sufficiently. They are more likely to have the confidence to pursue different accomplishments, whether it is trying to do well on a test, trying out for a sports team, answering a question in class, or applying for a job. These individuals are not overly afraid of failure; they realize that failure is a natural part of life and whether they fail or succeed at something does not indicate their overall worth and ability as a person. There are several factors that influence self esteem. These include: Age: Self-esteem tends to grow steadily up until middle school, which may be due to the transition of moving from the familiar environment of elementary school to a new setting with new demands. Self-esteem will either continue to grow after this period or begin to plummet. Gender: Girls tend to be more susceptible to having low self-esteem than boys, perhaps because of increased social pressures that emphasize appearance rather than intelligence or athletic ability. When memories are stored in the brain, they cannot serve people unless they are retrieved. How do people retrieve memories? This usually happens when memories are challenged. For example, if someone asks a question, a person must attempt to retrieve information in order to answer the question. Sometimes the answer is easy; other times, a person takes time to answer it. The amount of time it takes to answer the question is connected to a persons awareness of what memories are stored. Sometimes a person is not aware at the time that he or she knows the answer, but later realizes that the information is there, ready to be retrieved. Sometimes, a smell or a sound can trigger a memory that a person did not know was there. Write short examples that are related to your daily activities using James-Lange theory, Cannon Bard theory and the cognitive theory James-Lange theory According to James-Lange theory theory, witnessing an external stimulus leads to a physiological reaction. Your emotional reaction depends upon how you interpret those physical reactions. For example, suppose you are walking in the woods and you see a grizzly bear. You begin to tremble and your heart begins to race. The James-Lange theory proposes that you will interpret your physical reactions and conclude that you are frightened. For an example, when I see a cockroach, feel like uncomfortable and move away from that place and my heart beet become fast by thinking of cockroach going to come near me. Cannon Bard theory Cannon-Bard theory states that we feel emotions and experience physiological reactions such as sweating, trembling and muscle tension simultaneously. More specifically, it is suggested that emotions result when the thalamus sends a message to the brain in response to a stimulus, resulting in a physiological reaction. For example: I see a snake I’m afraid I begin to tremble. According to the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion, we react to a stimulus and experience the associated emotion at the same time .The Cannon-Bard theory of emotion differs from other theory of emotion such as the James-Lange theory of emotion, which argues that physiological responses occur first and result and are the cause of emotions. Cognitive theory Cognitive theory is a learning theory of psychology that attempts to explain human behavior by understanding the thought processes. The assumption is that humans are logical beings that make the choices that make the most sense to them. Information processing is a commonly used description of the mental process, comparing the human mind to a computer. Pure cognitive theory largely rejects behaviorism on the basis that behaviorism reduces complex human behavior to simple cause and effect. However, the trend in past decades has been towards merging the two into a comprehensive cognitive-behavioral theory. This allows therapists to use techniques from both schools of thought to help clients achieve their goals.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Self-government in the Early Colonies :: American Independence

How were the seeds for self-government sown in the early colonies? Why was this important when England started to enforce rules (such as the Intolerable Acts)?   Please give specific examples. Self-governance was a primary idea of the settlers in North America. Once English settlers began to come to the new world in the 1600s, they knew they needed to have their own freedom for themselves, after all that is why they left Great Britain in many cases. Self-governance is most notable in the earliest form of the Mayflower Compact in 1620 for Virginia. Great Britain began to deteriorate the self-governing nature of the colonies in the mid-1700s through various acts it deemed to be necessary. The enforcement of these acts caused the colonists to be unhappy with the actions Great Britain was taking and so the phrase â€Å"taxation without representation is tyranny† came. The Mayflower Compact, signed by some of the earliest settlers of Virginia including John Carter in 1620 was an example of early self-governance in that they established a â€Å"frame such just and equall laws, ordinances, acts, constitutions and offices..for the generall good of the Colonie.† They had left Great Britain with the intention to care for themselves and govern themselves. The Mayflower Compact is one of the earliest examples of people coming together to govern themselves and take control of their future and well-being as a colony without Great Britain. Many others followed suit after them in a manner very similar.4 In the 1760s King George III enacted the Sugar Act and the Stamp act to gain extra revenue from his colonies. King George III decided to enact heavier taxes to put money back into the empire that had been lost after the French and Indian War. This act levied heavy taxes on sugar imported from the West Indies. The Stamp Act in 1765 required that many items have a stamp to prove that the owner had payed for the taxes on the item. The problem the colonists had with it was that it increased the presence of English troops in the Colonies and they felt it was unneeded and only meant to put more control into Great Britain's hands.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Organizational Theory Final Paper Essay

Due to the recent and anticipated changes the U.S. government has made and continues to make in procedures regarding contract awards, as well as external market pressures from the economic downturn, I submit this proposal as a new approach to the existing organizational structure. Because talent and loyalty are at such a high premium in today’s workforce, I submit that the workforce be modified structurally rather than a full-scale reduction. This economic crisis will not last long and our current reaction and decisions will determine our longevity in the market. So the main objective of this restructure will be to make the best and most beneficial use of our employees that are committed to moving forward and to continue to build goodwill with our employees, shareholders, customers and suppliers. Changes in technology are not an issue for this particular proposal. The very nature of this company enhances flexibility in technological changes and even spear-heads changes in some aspects of industry. There may be mild behavior changes needed, but only to coincide with structural changes. The structural changes should prove to be positively accepted, as underutilization and overutilization issues should be resolved. The outcomes expected are: * reduced costs by realigning talent to appropriate duties * redefining merits for bonuses and certain benefits * offering more flexible working conditions for higher performance * creating diverse teams based on goals and projects * redesign Marketing division, re-evaluate goals, re-evaluate performance Forces Driving Change: * Characteristics of workforce have changed * The organizational structure of this company embraces military-like order. Modification of this approach is needed to empower team structure and welcome more civilian business approaches as â€Å"staff and middle management are better networked, more mobile, and smarter about their value and their options in the market.† (PWC) * Labor supply has changed * Much of the upper management and specialized employees are retired military, bringing them closer to a second retirement. While current conditions have delayed this trend it still exists. Competing companies aggressively recruit educated and experienced managers and industry specialists so we must create conditions that will foster satisfaction and loyalty. * Government contract allocation procedures have changed * More attention and emphasis must be put on other areas of the company’s businesses for wealth building. Government contracting has adjusted rates and opened the door for smaller companies to compete for Defense and Aerospace teaming contracts. * Economic downturns have caused readjustments in businesses and education * The Business Services company needs to update and integrate new business-to-business consulting approaches, enhancing and adding to our strict Six Sigma training. * The Advanced Visualization Solutions division needs to develop their products to serve beyond educational facilities, as most facilities are not currently able to invest in state-of-the-art technology. These products need to be streamlined to bring the cost of production and cost to customers down. * The Construction Company needs to focus on developing more domestic business. The international projects need to be managed by on-site managers via patriots or expatriate assignments. This will reduce expensive unplanned international travel as well as build goodwill with the natives of the country the project is based in. * The Marketing/Communications division has become obsolete, using old approaches of only upgrading the company website and only attending industry exhibitions and conferences. Marketing has become isolated from the energy that exists in the whole of the company, not working cooperatively or creatively with each subsidiary company. This is possibly due to absence of the sense of meaningfulness in the managers, thus lack of motivation. * The Core Divisions need more cohesion in their performance. Due to the overlap of duties between HR, Contracting and Accounting, there must be less antagonism and more cooperation between the managers. The executives rely on authoritarian leadership and â€Å"job-scare† tactics to motivate operations of these departments, thus the managers isolate themselves into their own responsibilities by not sharing information or working as cohesive teams to resolve challenges. Obviously, most of these problems have their origin in the culture that has been created in the company. While there are a few who remain loyal to the mission statement of the company and endeavor to sustain a family-like atmosphere, most managers and employees have become dissatisfied with not only the culture but with their own sense of meaning within the company. Thus, the owners and executives must be the first to revisit the mission statement and goals first set forth by the owners, create a more cohesive and safe culture and implement their own change of perspective. â€Å"Far too often, leaders ask everyone else to change, but in reality this usually isn’t possible until they first change themselves†. (De Smet, et al) One of the strengths to having retired military personnel in leadership and production is their ability to follow orders and to learn quickly. Most of their experience in military life was often being given an order (goal) and some of the necessary resources (most of the time), but little knowledge on how to execute it. Much of our nation’s greatest technology has come from such situations. For example, John Shergill itemized 10 American technological advances accomplished during wartime. One of the most outstanding was the development of a virtual environment, or the internet. â€Å"Conceived and designed in the late 1970’s during the height of the cold war as a defense against nuclear war. The thought was that if vital government information could be stored in a virtual environment, it would be impossible to take out communications at one location. The effect of this advancement is obvious to anyone reading this†. (Shergill) Necessity being the mother of invention was also observable when a young officer was given command over the technology department where he was deployed. Not only was the technology obsolete, but he had no idea how a computer worked. His order was to update and repair the system. Period. He quickly learned and implemented all he could and was successful in not only updating but enhancing new technology for that particular base. Today, as a retired Navy colonel, he is a professor of Networking, computer software and hardware at an outstanding US college. So the ingenuity and problem solving skills that exists within the retired military community is priceless, but their instinctive command-and-control leadership styles have become outdated and ineffective in a civilian business world, especially with civilian employees. Six Sigma approaches have been attractive to the Business Solutions department because it continues to embrace the command-and-control management skills; focusing on optimal production and very little on optimizing producers. Therefore I propose comprehensive and all-inclusive leadership-development training. I understand this may be especially opposed by our Business Services division, as these instructors consider themselves experts in the field of leadership. But it is vital that leaders stay ahead of trends in leadership especially if they train other leaders. Their expertise in traditional instruction of management mixed with the evolving principles will not only enhance, but possibly lead to more forward thinking and new approaches as they implement them. Again, it would be quite in character for the retired military leaders to take what they learn in this area and create even more valuable tactics and approaches that will enrich business leaders the world over. Thus creating a new benchmark for our company and creating a new competitive edge. In the April 2012 online edition of McKinsey Quarterly, three experts in the field of leadership training wrote of their findings in making leadership training the heart of large organizational change. The authors described the situation of one global company as â€Å"While the need for operational change was clear—the performance of the company†¦was inconsistent and in many cases far below that of competitors in terms of efficiency, productivity, and cost—so too were the organizational obstacles. Drives for improvement, for example, carried a stigma of incompetence; current performance was considered â€Å"good enough†; conflict tended to be passive-aggressive or was avoided entirely; and†¦employees felt that they were treated as cogs and that their supervisors were enforcers. The effect of all this on employees was disengagement, a lack of trust in senior management, and a pervasive fear of making mistakes—a worry reinforced by the company’s strong culture of safety and of risk aversion†¦ (So) the senior team had to look beyond technical improvements and focus on helping the company’s leaders to master the personal behavioral changes needed to support the operational ones. To that end, the company mounted an intense, immersive, and individualized leadership program† (De Smet, et al). The authors note that the program took four months for each participant, and included two week-long training programs and ongoing coaching to integrate what they learn with their work experiences. In the span of three years the return on investment in the participants has been tenfold for each leader. The program has increased the company’s income by almost $2 million, and the new leadership behavior has been crucial to the company’s success and is believed to have made the total organizational changes that were made more effective. So the development program I suggest needs to include: * Integrating leadership training with a BHG (big hairy goal). Without personalizing training it will be ineffective. Without an obtainable and desirable goal training will be a waste of time and effort. * Recognize the strengths and successes our company has and build on them. Bring in our strongest and most dedicated leaders (not necessarily formal managers) and train them in how to skillfully influence change by engaging everyone involved in the organization. These leaders may need to be considered as new or replacing current ineffective management or at the very least as team/discussion leaders. They are the bridge between corporate office and employee satisfaction. Use our Company Philosophy, found in our Employee Handbook, to employ our Core Competencies to realize our Vision Statement. * Any change in our organization must be based on honesty. Every employee of our company possesses, or at one time possessed, an expectation of good from us. Being a part of this organization was highly esteemed in the community and upon hiring, the employees felt important and distinct in their field because of our decision to employ. After being employed for about 3 years, the most common feature of the dissatisfaction that begins to set in is the irregular dispersion of information and a feeling that Corporate is not being honest or forthright with them. While this may be a military â€Å"need-to-know† approach to employee management, it is no longer efficient, as our employees are no longer military and they expect inclusion. The â€Å"leaks† and rumors that circulate on all of our job-sites and offices are much more damaging than the truth given from a trusted leader could ever be. * Common language and vocabulary used by leaders must be adopted. The language of a common vision is powerful, so leaders must be allowed to emerge and reassigned to influence the entire company. Success is contagious so the empowered managers will be able to empower employees. * Evaluate managers’ skills and interests and place them in the appropriate department. Technology can be learned, but it won’t be learned by a dissatisfied manager. * Modify benefits. Currently all employees derive their motivation from our bonus plan. Employees have been willing to accept the absence of sick leave, the infrequency of pay raises, and the absence of certain benefits in favor of expecting the year-end bonus. The Employee Handbook indicates that bonuses are â€Å"discretionary profit-sharing and performance-based rewards provided to employees base on a review of the factors previously mentioned in addition to management’s recommendations† (Our Company Handbook, pg. 11). It should be noted that every employee has different needs and motivations for working with us. We should modify our benefit offering by allowing them to make the decision of whether they would rather have a raise, receive a bonus or an enhancement to their provided benefits. * Subsidiary companies’ Business Development departments and company-wide Marketing/Communications must begin to work more cooperatively, beginning with information sharing and frequent interaction. Up to this point, these two departments have functioned exclusively of the other, relying only on each other for necessary information or for marketing tools for conventions/meetings. While BD has relied heavily on personal contacts networks, it must begin to utilize the principals and power of marketing. Marketing/Communications must begin to pursue the good of each BD department to enhance their efforts. The commitment to the structural changes, development of leaders and employee happiness must begin with the owners. It must also be an ongoing commitment, as sporadic attempts will only reinforce skepticism and heighten dissatisfaction. Leadership training must become a systemic process, not an event (Day, pg 8).

Monday, January 6, 2020

No Child Left Behind Act - 907 Words

Education has evolved over the years and special education has come a long way from where it began. However, there are still changes that are needed for special education. This paper gives an outlook on three major events in the history over the years and how it has shaped and changed special education. It also discusses the changes that still need to be made to continue to evolve. Three Important Moments No Child Left Behind Act The No Child Left behind Act allowed schools to determine the quality of the students and how well the students perform on tests that are set by federal government requirements. Also, it allowed parents of students from lower scored schools to transfer their students to go to a school with a higher score. This impacted education as a whole because it allowed the school to see what the needs were in that school and how the school could potentially better the students to be ready for the test. It also helps the schools to set a mandated curriculum to the standard that the school needs to be passed. According to the author Theresa Quignecy (2008) the Department of Education describes No Child Left Behind Act as a way to improve accountability and improve graduation rates with parental notification for Supplemental Education Services and public school choice. (Quigency, 2008 P.147). The act gives students a chance to receive further assistance in the areas that are need. However, there c ould potential be downfalls to the NCLB Act. One of theseShow MoreRelatedNo Child Left Behind Act1621 Words   |  7 Pages The support for the No Child Left Behind Act plummeted down shortly after the act passed. Many people supported the act at first simply because they supported the goals of the act, once they saw the results, their opinions changed. One of the biggest arguments towards No Child Left Behind is that it is unfair. People believed the resources of difference schools were unequal, and thought the Title 1 funding that the schools received should go to ensuring all schools had equal resources. Many peopleRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act1670 Words   |  7 Pages Literature Review: Every Student Succeeds Act Suzanne Hatton, BSW, LSW University of Kentucky-SW 630 Abstract This literature review seeks to explore the Every Student Succeeds Act (2015), a bipartisan reauthorization and revision to the No Child Left Behind Act (2002). The Every Student Succeeds Act (ESSA) is the first law passed in fourteen years to address Reneeded changes to the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB). Considered progressive and innovative at the time of itsRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act875 Words   |  4 PagesThe No Child Left Behind Act â€Å"NCLB† was a bill passed by the Senate in 2001 and signed into law by President George W. Bush on January 8, 2002. It was a revision of the Elementary and Secondary Act â€Å"ESEA† of 1965 by President Lyndon Johnson. The NCLB was intended to help children in lower-income families achieve the same standard of education as children in higher income families. This was done by the federal government providing extra finances for Title I schools in exchange for a rise in academicRead MoreNo Child Left Behind Act1418 Wor ds   |  6 Pagessystematic oppression. The flowing water of oppression floods poor schools; drowning students with dreams, and giving no mercy. The only ones safe from the water are the privileged, who are oblivious to the fact that it exists. George Bush s No Child Left Behind Act, which passed in 2002, mandated annual standardized testing in math and reading. If schools received insufficient scores, they were punished or shut down. This fueled the construed concept that a school is only doing well if the students haveRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act Essay921 Words   |  4 Pagesuccessful at it. (Source 7) Next, the â€Å"No Child left behind Act† it was signed by President George W. Bush and it passed with bipartisan support on Jan. 8, 2002. This Act states that there will be mandated annual testing in the subject reading and math and science. In the grades 3-8 and 10th grade. It shows the Adequate Yearly Progress of each school in the system of the United States. (source 1) The biggest point of this Act is that no child is â€Å"trapped in a failing school† (source 1). That eachRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act2120 Words   |  9 PagesWhen President George W. Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) into law in 2002, the legislation had one goal-- to improve educational equity for all students in the United States by implementing standards for student achievement and school district and teacher performance. Before the No Child Left Behind Act, the program of study for most schools was developed and implemented by individual states and local communities†™ school boards. Proponents of the NCLB believed that lax oversightRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act1988 Words   |  8 PagesJanuary 8, 2002, George W. Bush signed the No Child Left Behind Act into law (also known as the NCLB). The No Child Left Behind Act was the latest reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, a federal education bill addressing the nation’s schools. At his signing ceremony, Bush stated, â€Å"There’s no greater challenge than to make sure that every child—and all of us on this stage mean every child, not just a few children—every single child, regardless of where they live, how they’reRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act1592 Words   |  7 PagesThe No Child Left Behind Act was the biggest educational step taken by president Bush and his administration. Its main goal included the increase of achievement in education and completely eliminate the gap between different racial and ethnic grou ps. Its strategies had a major focus on uplifting test scores in schools, hiring â€Å"highly qualified teachers† and deliver choices in education. Unluckily, the excessive demands of the law have not succeeded in achieving the goals that were set, and have causedRead MoreNo Child Left Behind Act1747 Words   |  7 PagesNo Child Left Behind Introduction The No Child Left Behind Act (NALB) was signed into law by the former President of the United States George Walker Bush on the 8th of January 2002. It was a congressional attempt to encourage student achievement through some reforms focused on elementary and secondary education programs in the United States. The NCLB requires that within a decade all students including those with disabilities to perform at a proficient level on their state academic evaluation testsRead MoreThe No Child Left Behind Act1124 Words   |  5 PagesChristian J. Green Dr. Shoulders NCLB and ESSA 28 February 2016 The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) was authorized by and signed into law in 2002. NCLB was a reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) of 1965. NCLB was meant to hold schools to higher standards, enforce accountability, and close achievement gaps that had existed in education since ESEA was enacted. Nevertheless, the rigorous standards and goals set forth under NCLB were never attained. ESEA Flexibility could